Lipidic alterations in adolescents of adequate weight

Background. Serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) are usually used to determine atherogenic risk. Different studies in adults as well as in children have shown the superior prognostic value of apolipoprotein B, non HDL- cholesterol and specific ratios of lipoprotein variables, such as triglycerides/ HDL-c, LDL-c/ HDL-c and cholesterol/HDL-c.
Aims. Determine lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles and its association with anthropometric indicators in a young population.
Materials and methods. Four hundred twenty nine girls and 514 boys, between 11 and 14 years old were evaluated. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and waist/height ratio were determined. Blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-c, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B were analyzed. Triglycerides/HDL-c ratio and non HDL-c were calculated.
Results. Males had higher weight, BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic than girls. We observed positive correlations between waist circumference and BMI with total cholesterol and different lipoprotein ratios in males, however in female only waist circumference was associated with lipoprotein ratios. Only seventy percent of the adolescents presented normal lipid profile as well as LDL and non HDL-c levels. HDL-c was decreased in 35% of males and 45% of females, being the most frequent abnormality found.
Conclusions. We showed a high prevalence of undesirable lipid and lipoprotein levels in normal weight adolescents. This study emphasizes the need for early recognition and intervention for hyperlipidemia in pediatric populations to prevent cardiovascular disease in adults.

Keywords: Lipid profile; Lipids; Adolescents; Lipoproteins; Body mass index