Depression and heart failure: an association with negative outcomes

This paper deals with the relationship between depression and cardiovascular disease, which has relevance to clinical worsening in patients with heart failure (HF), as well as increased rate of hospitalizations and mortality. Depression is more prevalent in patients with HF in the general population, due to assumptions about the increased neurohormonal stimulation and cytokines, even in the presence of minor cardiac involvement. Outcomes from this negative association lead to public and social burden. This review will discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms and psychosocial determinants of this association, as well as treatment, diagnosis and prevention of depression in patients with heart failure. Expected to generate reflections on the clinical care of patients with HF, considering its adaptation to psychosocial stressors better monitoring, so early detection of this association.

Keywords: Heart failure; Depression; Mortality