Cardiovascular disease and acromegaly

Acromegaly is caused by a pituitary adenoma in over 99% of cases. It is disfiguring and disabling disease, which not being treated properly reduces life expectancy by an average of ten years. Complications are secondary to increased growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).
Both GH and IGF-1 have receptors at the cardiac myocyte, in which the patient with acromegaly may have left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and biventricular diastolic ending in failure and ultimately heart failure (HF).
It is a disease of low incidence, but if its early diagnosis and appropriate can be recovered myocardial structure and function. If the HF is established, LVH and cardiac enlargement may be irreversible, even when carried out the specific treatment of acromegaly not change the prognosis.
Symptoms may include: headache or visual disturbances which may include commitment of the visual field, or diplopia, abnormal facial and upper or lower limb, bone and joint conditions, among others. The vast majority of cases of acromegaly occurs after puberty, if it presented before the same will produce the “gigantism”.
Treatment may include medicines, with somatostatin analogs, or surgery. Through it has been demonstrated to improve cardiovascular and metabolic dysfunction. The complete surgical removal of GH-secreting tumor produces a hormone in acromegaly control and improved soft tissue changes. Transsphenoidal surgery is the treatment of choice for intrasellar microadenomas, macroadenomas noninvasive, or when the tumor causes symptoms of compression.

Keywords: High blood pressure; Left ventricular hypertrophy; Brain tumor; IGF-1; Growth hormone; Heart failure